The basics of Harvard Referencing System

Harvard is known as the Author & Date system:

  1. Citations in the text of your assignment should be made following the in-text guidelines given in the examples on the following pages.

  2. A complete list of all the citations used in your text will need to be provided at the end of your assignment. This is called your reference list or bibliography and needs to be presented in alphabetical author/originator order.


Harvard is not prescriptive about capitalisation of authors’ names in your reference list. If you do

wish to use capitals, then the family/surname of authors are only capitalised in this reference list

and not in the body of your work. If you prefer not to use capitals in this list, that is fine, but you

must be consistent in the style you decide to use.

Italics & underlining:

Only the title of the source of information is italicised or underlined, but you should choose only one

method throughout your assignment and stick to it! Do not use both italics and underlining.


Harvard has no one true style of punctuation so the generally accepted rule (BS ISO 690:2010) is to

be consistent with your style of punctuation throughout the whole of your assignment.

Some Helpful Resources

Here we collect some helpful resources that will help you to understand better the concept of referencing in general and Harvard Referencing system in particular. Links below and the videos on this page are very important;